The Circle for the Encouragement of Welding
The first industrial applications in welding in Romania occurred
after 1920. The possibility to weld worn tram rails lengthened their
working life, which represented a huge benefit in the economic context
after World War I. Arc welding gained more applications every year, such
as the creation of forms and frames for steel constructions, of pillars
for distributing lines, the production and disturbance of electric
machines, of rails devices for trams, etc. In 1931 the first welded bridge
was built in Reşiţa, across the Bârzava river.
The desire for cooperation drew closer a series of valuable Romanian
engineers and technicians, such as dr. eng. Cornel Mikloşi, dr. eng.
Ştefan Nădăşan, dr. eng. Remus Răduleţ, who
became later on academicians, prof. Constantin Teodorescu.
They realized the more and more important role of the welding
technique. Their discussions lead to the foundation, on June the 19th,
1937, of the Cercul pentru Încurajarea Sudurii (CIS) (the Circle for the
Encouragement of Welding), with the main nuclei at the Polytechnics School
and the Tramway Workshops in Timişoara. In the beginning, the Circle
had 21 founding members, and after one year of activity their number
increased to 63.
The purpose of the Circle, stated in its Statute, claimed:
a) "the study of welding procedures, through experiments
accomplished by its members and gathering of the results obtained by other
persons or bodies in the country and abroad; research in order to create
b) the organization of conferences and courses designed to
disseminate the knowledge in the field of welding to those who work or
intend to work with the application of welding in industry, regardless of
c) the publication, if possible, of a welding bulletin;
d) the maintenance of relationships with scientific bodies and
associations in the country and abroad.”
In 1938-1945 the Circle published its own quarterly magazine,
“Sudura” (Welding), with a circulation of 650 copies. The magazine
included scientific articles written by the members of the Circle, reviews
and translations of certain valuable works published abroad in the field
of welding, information about the activity of the Circle. The publication
of the magazine was accomplished with the subsidies received from
Industria Sârmei and Întreprinderile Electromecanice al Municipiului
The activity of the Circle in 1938, presented in the “Sudura”
magazine issued in January 1939 included the following:
There were made research on the welding of railways 45 kg/m – type
through arc welding, oxyacetylene flame welding, through intermediate
smelting (with sparks) and aluminum-thermal welding. The testing was
accomplished in cooperation with the Şcoala Politehnică (prof.
C. Teodorescu, dr. Ş. Nădăşan), Întreprinderile
Electromecanice al Municipiului Timişoara (dr. C. Mikloşi, eng.
D. Dehelean), Uzinele de Fier şi Domeniile in Reşiţa,
Industria Sârmei S.A. in Cluj and Societatea Nitrogen S.A. din Bucharest.
The main purpose of the research was the determination of the fatigue
strength of welded rails.
There were organized two courses for the fundamentals of arc
welding, of two months each, with 37 participants, out of which 28 were
awarded certifications as welders. The Circle was authorized by the
Ministry of Work to organize such courses, and this authorization was
extended the following year for the oxyacetylene welding as well.
The lectures presented at these courses, completed by tutorials,
I. Physical phenomena, electric arc, power supply for welding (9
hours - dr. eng. R. Răduleţ)
II. Tools and accessories, procedures (3 hours - eng. S. Prostean)
III. Prevention of accidents and cost calculations (3 hours - eng. M. Kielburger)
IV. Types of welded joints, conventional signs, dimensioning (4.5 hours - dr. eng. Ş. Nădăşan)
V. Metallurgical phenomena, welding testing (7.5 hours - eng. D. Dehelean)
VI. Constructions based on arc welding (3 hours - eng. I. Vasiliev)
The tutorials, consisting of 30 meetings of 3.5 hours, presided by
Mr. Francisc Schmidt, included the execution of a work concerning the
handling and maintaining of power sources, exercises with various arc
lengths, execution of welding from various positions, surfacing a
cylindrical beam, intentional production of distortions, prevention
measures, preparation of parts for technological testing and preparation
of works for examination.
The Circle published specialized treaties, such as “Industrial
Welding Procedures” (volume 1 and 2), written by dr. C. Mikloşi and
prof. C. Teodorescu, the first treaty on welding in the Romanian technical
literature. There was also published a terminology of welding in
alphabetical order in Romanian, English, German, and French.
These are some of the works published by the Circle:
- CIS - Les applications de la soudure a l'arc electrique en Roumanie,
- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Însuşirile metalelor şi aliajelor în lumina încercărilor tehnologice (Features of the metals and alloys in the light of technological testing)
- Eng. S. Prostean - Unelte şi accesorii folosite la sudură, electrozi (Tools and accessories used in welding, electrodes)
- Dr.eng. R. Răduleţ - Cunoştinţe de fizică. Arcul electric. Maşinile electrice de sudură (Fundamentals in Physics. Electric arc. Electric welding machines)
- CIS - Caracteristicile tehnologice ale oţelului cu carbon (Technological characteristics of carbon steel)
- CIS - Regulamente şi norme din diferite ţări pentru construcţiuni din oţel sudate (Rules and norms in various countries for welded steel structures)
- Dr. eng. L. de Jessey (translation by dr. eng. R. Răduleţ) - Curs de tăiere cu oxigen (Course of oxygen cutting)
- Eng. M. Kielburger - Preveniri
de accidente la sudura cu arcul electric. Calcul de cost, (Prevention
of accidents in arc welding. Cost calculation)
- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Instalaţiune mobilă pentru sudarea şinelor de cale ferată. Maşinile pentru încercarea materialelor (Mobile installation for welding of railways. Machines for material testing)
- CIS - Studiu comparativ al diferitelor procedee de sudură aplicate şinelor de cale ferată (Comparative study of various welding procedures applied to railways)
- Chemist T. Kovesi - Sudarea cu flacără oxiacetilenică a rosturilor de şine în România (Oxyacetylene flame welding of railways joints in Romania)
- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Sudarea unei linii ferate "in situ". Linii ferate sudate (Welding railways on site. Welded railways)
- Chemist T. Kovesi - Curs de sudură oxi-acetilenică (Course of oxyacetylene welding)
50 years later, most of the topics discussed in these papers are
Since 1939 there have been organized conferences in various venues
in the country.
The Circle has cooperated since 1938 with Şcolile Politehnice in Bucharest and Timişoara, Institutul Român de Energie (IRE), Asociaţia Producătorilor şi Distribuitorilor de Energie (APDE), Office Central de I'Acetylene et de la Soudure Autogene, Paris; Welding Research Comittee, New York, Schweizerischer Azetylenverein Basel, Elektrotechnickiy Svaz Cehoslovensky Praga.
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