The Circle for the Encouragement of Welding

The first industrial applications in welding in Romania occurred after 1920. The possibility to weld worn tram rails lengthened their working life, which represented a huge benefit in the economic context after World War I. Arc welding gained more applications every year, such as the creation of forms and frames for steel constructions, of pillars for distributing lines, the production and disturbance of electric machines, of rails devices for trams, etc. In 1931 the first welded bridge was built in Reşiţa, across the Bârzava river.

The desire for cooperation drew closer a series of valuable Romanian engineers and technicians, such as dr. eng. Cornel Mikloşi, dr. eng. Ştefan Nădăşan, dr. eng. Remus Răduleţ, who became later on academicians, prof. Constantin Teodorescu. 

They realized the more and more important role of the welding technique. Their discussions lead to the foundation, on June the 19th, 1937, of the Cercul pentru Încurajarea Sudurii (CIS) (the Circle for the Encouragement of Welding), with the main nuclei at the Polytechnics School and the Tramway Workshops in Timişoara. In the beginning, the Circle had 21 founding members, and after one year of activity their number increased to 63.

The purpose of the Circle, stated in its Statute, claimed:  

a) "the study of welding procedures, through experiments accomplished by its members and gathering of the results obtained by other persons or bodies in the country and abroad; research in order to create norms;

b) the organization of conferences and courses designed to disseminate the knowledge in the field of welding to those who work or intend to work with the application of welding in industry, regardless of their  education;

c) the publication, if possible, of a welding bulletin;

d) the maintenance of relationships with scientific bodies and associations in the country and abroad.”

In 1938-1945 the Circle published its own quarterly magazine, “Sudura” (Welding), with a circulation of 650 copies. The magazine included scientific articles written by the members of the Circle, reviews and translations of certain valuable works published abroad in the field of welding, information about the activity of the Circle. The publication of the magazine was accomplished with the subsidies received from Industria Sârmei and Întreprinderile Electromecanice al Municipiului Timişoara.

The activity of the Circle in 1938, presented in the “Sudura” magazine issued in January 1939 included the following:  

There were made research on the welding of railways 45 kg/m – type through arc welding, oxyacetylene flame welding, through intermediate smelting (with sparks) and aluminum-thermal welding. The testing was accomplished in cooperation with the Şcoala Politehnică (prof. C. Teodorescu, dr. Ş. Nădăşan), Întreprinderile Electromecanice al Municipiului Timişoara (dr. C. Mikloşi, eng. D. Dehelean), Uzinele de Fier şi Domeniile in Reşiţa, Industria Sârmei S.A. in Cluj and Societatea Nitrogen S.A. din Bucharest. The main purpose of the research was the determination of the fatigue strength of welded rails.

There were organized two courses for the fundamentals of arc welding, of two months each, with 37 participants, out of which 28 were awarded certifications as welders. The Circle was authorized by the Ministry of Work to organize such courses, and this authorization was extended the following year for the oxyacetylene welding as well.

The lectures presented at these courses, completed by tutorials, referred to:

I. Physical phenomena, electric arc, power supply for welding (9 hours - dr. eng. R. Răduleţ)

II. Tools and accessories, procedures (3 hours - eng. S. Prostean)

III. Prevention of accidents and cost calculations (3 hours - eng. M. Kielburger)

IV. Types of welded joints, conventional signs, dimensioning (4.5 hours - dr. eng. Ş. Nădăşan)

V. Metallurgical phenomena, welding testing (7.5 hours - eng. D. Dehelean)

VI. Constructions based on arc welding (3 hours - eng. I. Vasiliev)

The tutorials, consisting of 30 meetings of 3.5 hours, presided by Mr. Francisc Schmidt, included the execution of a work concerning the handling and maintaining of power sources, exercises with various arc lengths, execution of welding from various positions, surfacing a cylindrical beam, intentional production of distortions, prevention measures, preparation of parts for technological testing and preparation of works for examination.

The Circle published specialized treaties, such as “Industrial Welding Procedures” (volume 1 and 2), written by dr. C. Mikloşi and prof. C. Teodorescu, the first treaty on welding in the Romanian technical literature. There was also published a terminology of welding in alphabetical order in Romanian, English, German, and French.  


These are some of the works published by the Circle:

- CIS - Les applications de la soudure a l'arc electrique en Roumanie,

- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Însuşirile metalelor şi aliajelor în lumina încercărilor tehnologice (Features of the metals and alloys in the light of technological testing)

- Eng. S. Prostean - Unelte şi accesorii folosite la sudură, electrozi (Tools and accessories used in welding, electrodes)

- Dr.eng. R. Răduleţ - Cunoştinţe de fizică. Arcul electric. Maşinile electrice de sudură (Fundamentals in Physics. Electric arc. Electric welding machines)

- CIS - Caracteristicile tehnologice ale oţelului cu carbon (Technological characteristics of carbon steel)

- CIS - Regulamente şi norme din diferite ţări pentru construcţiuni din oţel sudate (Rules and norms in various countries for welded steel structures)

- Dr. eng. L. de Jessey (translation by dr. eng. R. Răduleţ) - Curs de tăiere cu oxigen (Course of oxygen cutting)

- Eng. M. Kielburger - Preveniri de accidente la sudura cu arcul electric. Calcul de cost, (Prevention of accidents in arc welding. Cost calculation)

- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Instalaţiune mobilă pentru sudarea şinelor de cale ferată. Maşinile pentru încercarea materialelor (Mobile installation for welding of railways. Machines for material testing)

- CIS - Studiu comparativ al diferitelor procedee de sudură aplicate şinelor de cale ferată (Comparative study of various welding procedures applied to railways)

- Chemist T. Kovesi - Sudarea cu flacără oxiacetilenică a rosturilor de şine în România (Oxyacetylene flame welding of railways joints in Romania)

- Dr. eng. C. Mikloşi - Sudarea unei linii ferate "in situ". Linii ferate sudate (Welding railways on site. Welded railways)

- Chemist T. Kovesi - Curs de sudură oxi-acetilenică (Course of oxyacetylene welding)

50 years later, most of the topics discussed in these papers are rather actual.

Since 1939 there have been organized conferences in various venues in the country.

The Circle has cooperated since 1938 with Şcolile Politehnice in Bucharest and Timişoara, Institutul Român de Energie (IRE), Asociaţia Producătorilor şi Distribuitorilor de Energie (APDE), Office Central de I'Acetylene et de la Soudure Autogene, Paris; Welding Research Comittee, New York, Schweizerischer Azetylenverein Basel, Elektrotechnickiy Svaz Cehoslovensky Praga.




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